Up-to-date X-ray diagnostic methods are introduced being applied in investigations of dense plasma created by high-power and ultra-intense laser pulses. The solutions to measure various plasma parameters by using spectrally resolved radiation of multicharged ions are discussed. Examples of self-emission as well shadowgraphy X-ray images of dense plasmas are given providing the measurement of plasma parameters with spatial resolution.
Recent experimental results obtained in high energy density studies at multi-TW and PW laser facilities are discussed, including the following topics:
- the matter pumped by laser-generated ultra bright X-rays: hollow atoms and plasma with radiation dominated kinetics;
- supersonic plasma flows and shock waves related to astrophysical phenomena;
- ion acceleration in the interaction of fs pulses with solids, nanograin and cluster targets;
- the matter isochorically heated by laser-generated MeV electrons.